Notes on Religion (October 1776 published in The Writings of Thomas Jefferson : (1899) edited by Paul Leicester Ford,. Not found in Jefferson's writings. It is then among the mostRead more
The principle of an accused person is innocent until proven guilty originated in Rome. Soldiers nicknamed the boy Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus. Literature, History, and Philosophy, from which culture didRead more
you can use the active. Millions of peasants are robbed of their farms and sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of population or rectification of frontiers. Professor Laski (1) uses five negatives in fifty three words. A man may take to drink because he feels himself to be a failure, and then fail all the more completely because he drinks. The political dialects to be found in pamphlets, leading articles, manifestos, White papers and the speeches of undersecretaries do, of course, vary from party to party, but they are all alike in that one almost never finds in them a fresh, vivid, homemade turn. People are imprisoned for years without trial, or shot in the back of the neck or sent to die of scurvy in Arctic lumber camps: this is called elimination of unreliable elements. A newly invented metaphor assists thought by evoking a visual image, while on the other hand a metaphor which is technically dead (e. As soon as certain topics are raised, the concrete melts into the abstract and no one seems able to think of turns of speech that are not hackneyed: prose consists less and less of words chosen for the sake of their meaning, and more and. Look back through this essay, and for certain you will find that I have again and again committed the very faults I am protesting against.
Politics legitimacy, Religion and Politics in America, UK Politics: The Reform Acts,
Modern English, especially written English, is full of bad habits which spread by imitation and which can be avoided if one is willing to take the necessary trouble. Because political language is heard everyday, Orwell reasons that the poor political writing directly affects English writing. As a result of the political influence, bad writing habits have developed. People who write in this manner usually have a general emotional meaning they dislike one thing and want to express solidarity with another but they are not interested in the detail of what they are saying. Adjectives like epoch-making, epic, historic, unforgettable, triumphant, age-old, inevitable, inexorable, veritable, are used to dignify the sordid process of international politics, while writing that aims at glorifying war usually takes on an archaic colour, its characteristic words being: realm, throne, chariot, mailed fist, trident, sword. Things like the continuance of British rule in India, the Russian purges and deportations, the dropping of the atom bombs on Japan, can indeed be defended, but only by arguments which are too brutal for most people to face, and which do not square with. The combination of such language misuses greatly contributes to the deterioration of the quality of English writing. If laboratory Write up on Photosythesis in Biology you simplify your English, you are freed from the worst follies of orthodoxy. At the same time, his rules emphasized the use of shorter words instead of long words, the active instead of the passive, and English phrases instead of foreign phrases. You can shirk it by simply throwing your mind open and letting the ready-made phrases come crowding. One need not swallow such absurdities as this, but one ought to recognise that the present political chaos is connected with the decay of language, and that one can probably bring about some improvement by starting at the verbal end.
An Irish Philosopher, George Berkeley
The Curious George Series