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of inherent worth. For example, the death of a quarter of the human population would not prejudice ecosystems or the diversity of species. For example, groundwater is removed from an aquifer at a rate much greater than its very slow natural recharge. The exact measures and outcomes of this balance is controversial and there are different ways for environmental concerns to be expressed in practice. From this standpoint, cruelty towards non-human animals would be instrumentally, rather than intrinsically, wrong. This apparently simple statement has been discussed in detail. However, it is not widely agreed that fruits have value as ends in themselves. Immanuel Kant (Duties to Animals and Spirits,. In English Literature in 1963, Momaday received his. Commercial farming practices aimed at maximizing crop yields and profits, Carson speculates, are capable of impacting simultaneously on environmental and public health. Bookchin 1987 and Brennan 1998a). In their controversial work The Population Bomb, Paul and Anne Ehrlich, argue that without restrictions on population growth, including the imposition of mandatory birth control, the world faced mass starvation in the short term (Ehrlich 1968).
A related understanding has been framed as global land as a commons. Ecological thought is derivative of established currents in philosophy, particularly from ethics and politics, ancient Greek philosophers such as Hippocrates and Aristotle laid the foundations of ecology in their studies on natural history. These two different foci for the notion of intrinsic value still provide room for fundamental argument between deontologists and consequentialist to continue, albeit in a somewhat modified form. A second common criticism of Leopold is that he fails to state clearly why we should adopt the land ethic.
A Claim for a United Ireland, Oliver Twist: Experiences of Poor in 1830s England,
On the other (deontological) hand there is the intrinsic values of entities to be respected (see Bradley 2006, McShane 2014). He maintains that while feeding people always seems humane. In her work, Freya Mathews has tried to articulate a version of animism or panpsychism that captures ways in which the world (not just nature) contains many kinds of consciousness and sentience. The Brundtland report puts less emphasis on limits than do Mill, Malthus and these more recent writers. Summa Contra Gentiles,. Among the accessible work that drew attention to a sense of crisis was Rachel Carsons. It remains to be seen, however, whether the radical attempt to purge the concept of nature from eco-critical work meets with success. Ecology includes the study of interactions that organisms have with other, other organisms. But Nsswary of the apparent totalitarian political implications of Leopolds position that individual interests and well-being should be subordinated to the holistic good of the earths biotic community (see section 4 below)has always taken care to distance himself from advocating any sort of land ethic. Generally, anthropocentric positions find it problematic to articulate what is wrong with the cruel treatment of non-human animals, except to the extent that such treatment may lead to bad consequences for human beings.
This post will take a closer look at the basic tenets of Leopolds idea and explore how we can better understand and apply land ethics in our own lives. After tracing the ethical pedigree of the land ethic, I look at Callicotts contemporary adaptation of Leopolds work in Callicotts Development. The first subsection, The Land Ethic Applied, promotes a method for applying the land ethic. Sit back and enjoy the ride. The extension of ethics to the land.